An Overview on Globalization Issues in ELT by Cultural Settings towards Glocalization and Applying in Curriculum and Syllabus Design

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Library and database expert in The Institute for Language & Culture Studies, Al-Mustafa International University; and, MA in TESOL; department of English Language Teaching, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran

2 PhD in applied linguistics; Associate professor & Head of English language department, Payame Noor University, Qom, Iran.

3 . PhD in Applied linguistics; Assistant professor, English language department, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.

چکیده

By the spread and ownership of English in the new globalized arena, and by the great realization of World Englishes towards this miscellaneous geographical diffusion of English and local settings, a wide range of studies has been conducted to explore these new different varieties of English. Therefore, in today’s world, by huge communication and telecommunication infrastructures among global context, English as an International Language (EIL) has emerged its definition for the reason of international communication. In this scene, the great deal of western norms in contact with different local and cultural contexts, the term glocalization has emerged to compose globally appropriate norms by locally and culturally accepted settings. This paper introduces how these new challenging glocalized norms were maintained by western globalized forms in (ELT) pedagogy. As a result, it was the reason that in implication of glocalization in (ELT), by awareness of local needs and culturally acceptable norms, curriculum and syllabus designers have considered a new framework for developing their appropriate syllabi in terms of functional principles.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Overview on Globalization Issues in ELT by Cultural Settings towards Glocalization and Applying in Curriculum and Syllabus Design

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mehdi Pirooz Mofrad 1
  • Hasan Soleimani 2
  • Abd-ol-Majid Tabatabaei Lotfi 3
1 Library and database expert in The Institute for Language & Culture Studies, Al-Mustafa International University; and, MA in TESOL; department of English Language Teaching, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran
2 PhD in applied linguistics; Associate professor & Head of English language department, Payame Noor University, Qom, Iran.
3 . PhD in Applied linguistics; Assistant professor, English language department, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

By the spread and ownership of English in the new globalized arena, and by the great realization of World Englishes towards this miscellaneous geographical diffusion of English and local settings, a wide range of studies has been conducted to explore these new different varieties of English. Therefore, in today’s world, by huge communication and telecommunication infrastructures among global context, English as an International Language (EIL) has emerged its definition for the reason of international communication. In this scene, the great deal of western norms in contact with different local and cultural contexts, the term glocalization has emerged to compose globally appropriate norms by locally and culturally accepted settings. This paper introduces how these new challenging glocalized norms were maintained by western globalized forms in (ELT) pedagogy. As a result, it was the reason that in implication of glocalization in (ELT), by awareness of local needs and culturally acceptable norms, curriculum and syllabus designers have considered a new framework for developing their appropriate syllabi in terms of functional principles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Globalization
  • EFL
  • EIL
  • ELT
  • Syllabus design
  • Curriculum development
Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M. (2003). A World Culture of Schooling? Introductory essay to Kathryn M. Anderson-Levitt, Ed., Local Meanings, Global Schooling: Anthropology and World Culture Theory (p. 35). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Appadurai, M. (1996). Transcending the nativeness paradigm. World Englishes, 20 (1), 99–106.

Atai, M. R., & Mazlum, F. (2013). English language teaching curriculum in Iran: Planning and practice. The Curriculum Journal, 24(3), 389-411.

Block, D., & Cameron, D. (2002). Globalization and Language Teaching. London:  Routledge.

Bodely, J.  (2003). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bolton, K. (2004). Attitude to Language. Cambridge University Press.

Brown, J. D. (1995). Elements of language curriculum:  a systematic approach to program development. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.

Canagarajah, A. S. (2008). Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Erling, E. J. (2005). The many names of English: A discussion of the variety of labels given to the language in its worldwide role. English Today 81, 21(1), 40-44.

Ellis, R. (2003b). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2008). Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fishman, J. (1982). Sociology of English as an additional language. In B. B. Kachru (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (pp. 15–22). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Friedman, T. L., (1999), The Lexus and the Olive Tree, NY: Farraar, Straus and Giroux, p. 236.

Fuertes, J. N., Potere, J. C., & Ramirez, K. Y. (2002) Effects of speech accents on interpersonal evaluations: implications for counseling practice and research. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 346–56.

Giddens, Anthony. (2000). Runaway World: How Globalization Is Reshaping Our Lives. New York: Routledge.

Garrett, P. (2010). Attitude to Language. Cambridge University Press.

Graddol, D. (1997) The Future of English? London: The British Council.

Graddol, D. (1999). The decline of the native speaker. AILA Review, 13, 57–68.

Hasman, B. (2000). Closing the conceptual gap: The case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11, 133–158.

Graves, K.  (2000). Designing language courses:  a guide for teachers.  Boston:  Heinle and Heinle.

Gray, H.  (2002).  The global coursebook in English Language Teaching.  In D.  Block & D. Cameron (Eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 151-167). London: Routledge

Heller, M. (2003). Globalization, the new economy and the commodification of language and identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7 (4):  473 – 92.

Holliday, A. (2005). The Struggle to Teach English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Honey, J. (1997). Language is power: the story of Standard English and its enemies. London: Faber and Faber.

Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language: New models, new norms, new goals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J.  (1st. ed.) (2003) World Englishes. A Resource Book for Students.  London and New York:  Routledge.

Jenkins, J. (2006a). Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly, 40 (1), 157-181.

Jenkins, J. (2006b). The spread of EIL: a testing time for testers. ELT Journal, 60 (1), 42-50.

 Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J. (2009). World Englishes: A resource book for students (2nd ed.). London/New York: Routledge.

Johnson, R. K. (1989). A decision making framework for the coherent language curriculum. In R.  K.  Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum.  Cambridge.  UK:  Cambridge University Press, 1-23.

Kachru, Y. (1985). Cultural meaning and rhetorical styles: Toward a framework for Contrastive Rhetoric. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principles & practice in applied linguistics (pp. 171–184). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kachru, B. B. (1992) The Other Tongue. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Kachru, Y. & Nelson, C. (2006) The Handbook of World Englishes. Malden, MA: Wiley; Blackwell publishing.

Kasper, G. (1997). ‘‘A’ stands for acquisition: A response to Firth and Wagner’. Modern Language Journal 81(3), 307–312.

Kirkpatrick, A. (2006). Which model of English: Native-speaker, nativised or lingua franca? In R. Rubdy & M. Saraceni (Eds.), English in the world: Global rules, global roles (pp. 71–83). London: Continuum.

Modiano, M. (1999a). International English in the global village. English Today, 15(2), 22-34.

Modiano, M. (1999b). Standard English(es) and educational practices for the world’s lingua franca. English Today, 15(4), 3-13.

Matsuda, H., (2000). The officialization of English and ELT in Japan: 2000. World Englishes, 23(3), 471–487.

Matsuda, A. (2012a). Principles and practices of teaching English as an international language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

McArthur, T.  (1998) The English Languages. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

McKay, S.L. (2002). Teaching English as an international language: Rethinking goals and approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McKay, S. L. (2003). Toward an appropriate EIL pedagogy: Re-examining common ELT assumptions. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 1-32.

Nation, I. S. P., & Macalister, J. (2010). Language Curriculum Design. New York: Routledge

Quirk, R. (1990). Language varieties and standard language. English Today, 21, 3–10.

Richards, J. C. & Schmidt, W. R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Harlow, England: Pearson education limited.

Ross, H. & Lou, J. (2005) "Glocalizing" Chinese higher Education: Groping for Stones to Cross the River, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 24(8), 229.

Rodgers, T. S. (1989). Syllabus design, curriculum development, and polity determination. In R. K. Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press, 24-34.

Saraceni, J. (2009). A vision for world Englishes in the expanding circle. World Englishes, 24 (3), 323-327.

Seidlhofer, B. (2001). Closing a conceptual gap:the case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11 (2), 133-158.

Sharifian, D.  (2009). Native-speaker norms and international English: a classroom view. ELT Journal, 56 (3), 240-249.

Shin, N. (2006). Rethinking TESOL from a SOL's Perspective: Indigenous Epistemology and Decolonizing Praxis in TESOL. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal, 3(2 & 3), 147–167

Smith, L (ed.) (1983) Readings in English as an international language. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Smith, L. E. (1992). Spread of English and issues of intelligibility. In B. B. Kachru. The Other Tongue: English across Cultures (pp.75–90). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Soleimani, H., & Dabbaghi, A.  (2012).  Textbook evaluation:  A reflection on the New Interchange Series. International Journal of research studies in language learning, 1(2), 19-32.

Soleimani, H. & Mortazavi, M. (2013). Maintaining the local divergence in the local convergence in syllabus and curriculum design. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 3(4), 119-133.

Strevens, P. (1983). What is 'standard English'? In L. Smith (Ed.), Readings in English as an international language (pp. 87-93). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Trudgill  P.  (2008) Colonial dialect contact in the history of European languages: On the irrelevance of identity to new - dialect formation.  Language in Society 37:  241 – 54.

Toolan, M. (1997). Recentering English: New English and global. English Today, 13(4), 3-10.

Widdowson, H. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28 (2), 377–389.

Widdowson, H. (1997). EIL, ESL, EFL: Global issues and local interests. World Englishes, 16(1), 135–146.